The specialization of contemporary intellectual research has affected the queen of wonder too. Many other disciplines exist within philosophy. Philosophers have indeed provided systematic theories of history, justice, the State, the natural … So, what characterizes philosophical wonder? Philosophy is a field of inquiry – the pursuit of wisdom; the predecessor and complement of science, developing the issues which underlie science and pondering those questions which are beyond the scope of science. ‘Philosophy’ can refer to a lot of things. What is the difference between a living and a non-living entity? Logic is concerned with proper reasoning. ', Ethics with 'how should one conduct oneself?'. Everything can be included as the subject matter of this discipline. Philosophers have indeed provided systematic theories of history, justice, the State, the natural world, knowledge, love, friendship: you name it. This is reflected, for instance, in the growing popularity of philosophical counseling, philosophical cafés, and in the success that philosophy majors seem to enjoy on the job market. His research focuses on metaphysics, ethics, and philosophy of biology. The essence of philosophy is the study and development of fundamental ideas and methods that are not adequately addressed in specialized empirical disciplines, such as physics or history. However, there are some people who are wild enough to do that. Here is a brief summary of the periods of this discipline: The historical periods of this discipline can be divided into mainly three parts: Philosophy as a discipline is so vast that it is quite impossible to discuss it briefly. In the Sophist tradition, philosophy is a body of knowledge to be mastered with which you could gain power or reward. Another example is the term 'natural philosophy', which was once used to mean science, or more particularly physics. Rooms are organized according to basic criteria: Keys stay in the basket, Clothing should never be scattered unless in use, All books should sit on the shelves unless in use. Classic systematic philosophers – such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel – boldly affirmed that philosophy grounds all other sciences. Most importantly, it teaches us to be a better version of ourselves. Engaging in philosophical thinking is, under this perspective, like putting in order your own room to receive a guest: anything should find a place and, possibly, a reason for being where it is. Topics at its centre include the theory of knowledge, ethics, the nature of language, and the nature of mind. These independent disciplines do have their own philosophies; so there is a philosophy of science, a philosophy of mathematics, a philosophy of psychology, and so on. For this purpose, they develop methods of thinking, including logic, introspection, and meditation. The deep and multifarious relationship that philosophy bears to other sciences is clear by taking a look at its branches. In this sense, philosophy is concerned with the practical bits of how to live rather than a theoretical attempt to understand. More modestly, philosophy may seem to provide valuable resources for thinking about fundamental questions. Is philosophy really the queen of sciences? (ethics), "What is beauty?" Epistemology is concerned with 'how do I know what I know? Whitehead once suggested. Philosophical wonder is a methodology. (epistemology), "What is the difference between good and evil?" In general, it means love of wisdom. This is a clue to the nature of philosophy. Thus, whether you have a systematic worldview or the right attitude, you may aspire to be called ‘philosopher’. (aesthetics), and "What is the meaning of life?" In the analytic tradition of Europe and its subsequent transplanting to the Americas, philosophy has reinvented itself with a new set of techniques that would be out of place in the world of the ancient Greeks, where philosophy started. How to achieve it? Philosophy is that attitude which brings you to question even what’s most obvious. For example, if you go into a public library that uses the Dewey decimal classification system, you will find that psychology books have a classmark starting with 150 - right in the middle of the philosophy section. Once upon a time, these were philosophical questions, and the wonder from which they emerged was a philosophical wonder. A Definition of Formalism: Including Properties and Checklist of Formalist Criticism, Organizational Studies: An Introduction with its Culture and Psychology, What is Nanotechnology? Philosophy is the only discipline that encompasses all other sections and disciplines of knowledge. The entries given by different dictionaries can be divided into 3 groups: However, this article will only focus on philosophy as an academic discipline. The essence of philosophy is the study and development of fundamental ideas and methods that are not adequately addressed in specialized empirical disciplines, such as physics or history. In the Western world, at one time the term 'philosophy' covered all disciplines. (metaphysics), "What do we know, and how do we know it?" Philosophy has a rich literary heritage, including the writings and teachings of profound thinkers from many cultures throughout history. Some principles are specific to a branch. Some believe so. For example, Hegel’s theory of history was used to justify racist politics and nationalistic States; when Plato tried to apply the doctrines exposed in The Republic to the city of Syracuse, he faced sheer failure. It is responsible for the definitions of, and the approaches used to develop the theories of, such diverse fields as religion, language, science, law, psychology, mathematics, and politics. For one, philosophical systems have done lots of damage. Granted, there was a time in which philosophy vested the role of protagonist. ', Ontology with 'what is real? ‘Philein’ means ‘to love’ and ‘sophia’ means ‘wisdom’. Thus taught most of the major figures of ancient philosophy, including Plato, Aristotle, and the Tao Te Ching. A controversial principle in ethics is the Principle of Utility, invoked by so-called consequentialists: “The right thing to do is the one that produces the greatest amount of good.” Theory of knowledge centers around the Epistemic Closure Principle: “If a person knows that A and A entails B, then that person knows that B as well.”, Is systematic philosophy doomed to failure? Beware though: the appellation may not always carry a good reputation! Andrea Borghini, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at the University of Milan, Italy. It assists us to engage in constructive arguments that produce solutions to many problems. Baruch Spinoza was an optician; Gottfried Leibniz worked – among other things – as a diplomatic; David Hume’s main employments were as a tutor and as a historian. Literally, it means “love of wisdom.” But, really, philosophy begins in wonder. And it ends in wonder too, when philosophical taught has done its best – as A.N. By this view, what is called 'philosophy' at any time in history are those provinces of human knowledge which have not yet come of age, which not yet developed their own autonomous character and status. To some, philosophy’s goal is a systematic worldview. It helps us analyze everything we see and know more about ourselves.