Conducting secondary research allows a writer to connect a local problem he or she is investigating and a local solution he or she is proposing with a national and even global context, and to see whether the local situation is typical or a-typical. Your task as an enlightened critical reader is to read what is on the page, giving the writer a fair chance to develop ideas and allowing yourself to reflect thoughtfully, objectively, on the text. The primary and secondary research conducted by these students was not allowing them to make that step from analyzing local data to understanding their problem in context. The work that best describes and justifies the rhetorical reading theory is Douglas Brent’s 1992 book Reading as Rhetorical Invention: Knowledge, Persuasion, and the Teaching of Research-Based Writing. It seeks to understand the roots of a problem and propose a solution based on a local and well as a global situation and research. The students had no trouble designing research questions and finding people to interview and survey. Critical readers and researchers understand that it is not enough to look at the research question locally or narrowly. In fact, according to Brent, knowledge equals persuasion because, in his words, “Knowledge is not simply what one has been told. An interesting passage describing the substance of critical and active reading comes from the introduction to their book Ways of Reading whose authors David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky write: Notice that Bartholomae and Petrosky describe reading process in pro-active terms. Of course, sometimes we have to assume this stance and read for information or the “main point” of a text. Jot down marginal notes, underline and highlight, write down ideas in a notebook, do whatever works for your own personal taste. Critical reading, then, is a two-way process. 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Community Solutions, Biological and Behavioral, Computational and Critical (B2C2) Data Initiative, New College Environmental Health Science Scholars (NCEHSS), Resilience in Social Environments (RISE) Initiative, Center for Critical Inquiry and Cultural Studies (CCICS), Communication Assessment and Learning Lab (CommLabASU), Interdisciplinary Global Learning and Engagement (IGLE), Law and Science Dissertation Grant (LSDG), STEAM Education Scholarship and Experiential Learning (SESEL), Elements of Inquiry: Reflection, Critical Thinking, and Research, Reading as Questioning: A Critical Approach to Texts, A Case Study of Critical Reading: Frederick Douglass' Autobiography, Keeping a Record of Your Reading Process: Annotating Texts, Giving Your Readers the Gist: Summarizing, Integrating Other Writer's Work: Attributive Tags, The Art of Choosing the Right Passage: Quotation, Navigating a World of Information: ASU Libraries, School of Humanities, Arts and Cultural Studies, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Center for Critical Inquiry and Cultural Studies, When you have found a source that you recognize will be central to your project, When you have found a source that contradicts one of your central sources, When you have found a source that takes a unique perspective on the issue you are researching, When you have found a source that for one reason or another you plan to discuss at length in your project. They needed some other type of research sources. Interested in converting this document to PDF for display in Blackboard or printing? They needed to generalize the problem and, instead of looking at a local example, to consider its implications for the issue they were studying overall. You can read more on the role of the reader’s pre-existing knowledge in the construction of meaning later on in this chapter. Granted, most fields of knowledge have texts which are called “definitive.” Such texts usually represent our best current knowledge on their subjects. Research is recursive. Use the dictionary and other appropriate reference works. . At the same time, one of the leading themes in Foucault’s work is discipline. The work that best describes and justifies the rhetorical reading theory is Douglas Brent’s 1992 book Reading as Rhetorical Invention: Knowledge, Persuasion, and the Teaching of Research-Based Writing. In addition to note-taking, it is often helpful to regularly record your responses and thoughts in a more permanent place that is yours to consult. 9.2 Steps in Developing a Research Proposal, 9.4 Strategies for Gathering Reliable Information, 9.5 Critical Thinking and Research Applications, 9.6 Writing from Research: End-of-Chapter Exercises, 10.1 Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper (and academic honestly), 10.2 Developing a Final Draft of a Research Paper, 10.3 Writing a Research Paper: End-of-Chapter Exercises, Chapter 11: APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting, 11.4 Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Style, 11.5 APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting: End-of-Chapter Exercises, Chapter 12: Creating Presentations - Sharing Your Ideas, 12.2 Incorporating Effective Visuals into a Presentation, 12.4 Creating Presentations: End-of-Chapter Exercises, 14.6 Strategies for Connecting Reading and Writing, 14.7 Finding and Evaluating Research Sources, 14.8 Acknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism, 14.9 Research Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 15.5 Office 365 Introduction and General Student Support Links. A critical reading gets at "deep structure" (if there is such a thing apart from the superficial text! If you have read each source critically with an inquisitive, questioning mind, you’ll have not only a list of sources but a map of your critical reading process as well as a stronger body of working knowledge about the issue you are researching. Feelings can be a source of shareable good reason for belief. Martin states that the student was able to see some connection between Foucault and her own life and use the reading for her research and writing (6). Briefly explained, Brent treats reading not only as a vehicle for transmitting information and knowledge, but also as a means of persuasion. By becoming a more critical and active reader, you will also become a better researcher and a better writer. Readers react differently to emotional and ethical proofs presented by writers. I've developed a 35-item questionnaire to measure ESP students' critical reading strategies awareness while reading materials in English (as part of my Ph.D. research). To create meaning, critical readers use a variety of approaches, strategies, and techniques which include applying their personal experiences and existing knowledge to the reading process. However, even the definitive works get revised over time and they are always open to questioning and different interpretations. The purpose of research is not simply to retrieve data, but to participate in a conversation about it. Critical reading means that a reader applies certain processes, models, questions, and theories that result in enhanced clarity and comprehension. 3.5 Working with Words: End-of-Chapter Exercises, Chapter 4: Writing Paragraphs - Separating Ideas and Shaping Content, 4.1 Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content (summary/analysis/evaluation), 4.2 Effective Means for Writing a Paragraph, 4.3 Writing Paragraphs: End-of-Chapter Exercises. It offers readers the ability to be active participants in the construction of meaning of every text they read and to use that meaning for their own learning and self-fulfillment. Critical reading occurs after some preliminary processes of reading. Critical readers are not made overnight. What is the difference? Meaning of every text is “made,” not received. Students in my writing classes often tell me that the biggest challenge they face in trying to become critical readers is getting away from the idea that they have to believe everything they read on a printed page.